Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013 Nov
Chu S1, Schubert ML.
Purpose of review
The review summarizes the past year's literature, basic science and clinical, regarding the neural, paracrine, hormonal, and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion.
Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B(12), and certain medications (e.g. thyroxin). It also kills ingested microorganisms and prevents bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Stimulants of acid secretion include histamine, gastrin, acetylcholine, and ghrelin. Inhibitors include somatostatin, nefstatin-1, interleukin-11, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Helicobacter pylori stimulates or inhibits acid secretion depending upon the time course of infection and the area of the stomach predominantly infected. Acute infection activates calcitonin gene-related peptide sensory neurons coupled to inhibition of histamine and acid secretion. Serum chromogranin A, a marker for neuroendocrine tumors, is elevated in patients taking proton pump inhibitors.
Progress continues in our understanding of the regulation of gastric acid secretion in health and disease, as well as the function of gastric neuroendocrine cells. The recognition that gastrin is not only a secretagogue but also a trophic hormone has led to new research into the role of gastrin and its receptor (cholecystokinin-2 receptor) in carcinogenesis and the development of cholecystokinin-2 receptor antagonists.